In the 15th Century AD, Ulugh Beg a king and scholar took a step forward by making reforms that made astronomy a long term research area. He mapped out the stars, not for astrology, but instead to look at them as coordinates to calculate time and season.
Until the 20th century, Ulugh Beg's catalogue, which had been published by Oxford in 1648, propelled scholars to seek out his observatory in Samarqand. This was only discovered in 1908. Inside, there is a huge 40 metre quadrant that was used to identify the position of the sun and stars across the universe all year long. This quadrant is located underground; the dark surroundings allow light in from objects including stars.